Eugene Wang, Ph. D.

About

Associate Professor
TTU Community, Family, and Addiction Sciences

Eugene Wang, Ph. D.

Dr. Eugene Wang is the owner of Wang Evaluation & Data Science Consultant, LLC., and an Associate Professor in The College of Human Sciences. He received his Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees in Psychology from East Texas State University and his Ph.D. in Psychology from Texas A&M-Commerce.  His research areas have a broad focus on individuals with emotional and behavioral disorders, assessment of risk (particularly violence risk), and strategies for reducing interpersonal violence.  He is particularly interested in implementation of positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) in at-risk populations, such as incarcerated youth.

Education

Major: Psychology; Minor: Music

Major: Psychology.

Thesis: The effects of frequency of messaging and list source on overt and covert attempts at affiliation in computer-mediated discussion lists.

Major: Psychology; Minor: Special Education (1998)

Dissertation: The use of structural modeling techniques to predict violence potential in mentally ill male prisoners.

Areas of Expertise

Selected Publications

(*): Denotes current or former student

“The Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths (CANS) is a comprehensive tool assessing functioning, strengths, acculturation, caregiver needs/resources, behavioral/emotional needs, and risk behaviors of youth and children. Although this tool is widely used within the United States, minimal work has been published overviewing the tool, synthesizing existing research that utilizes it, and highlighting studies that specifically examine its psychometric properties such as reliability and validity. The purpose of this article is to overview much of the existing research and literature that has been published in peer-reviewed journals that employs the CANS to offer researchers, helping professionals, families, agencies, and institutions a synopsis of the current status of the tool. Additionally, suggestions and future directions of the CANS are offered with the intent of strengthening and solidifying the tool’s understanding, utility, and application.

Brown, C. C., Wang, E. W., & *Goad, C. (2022). The Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths (CANS): A review of existing academic research and literature. Residential Treatment for Children and Youth, 39(3), 331-346. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/0886571X.2022.2038337

“Collegiate Recovery Program (CRP) growth is dependent upon research that addresses the value of CRPs. Given that CRP research is relatively new, there are barriers related to justifying the establishment and growth of CRPs. One barrier to CRP expansion is the lack of cost-benefit analyses within the field. Understanding students and their wellbeing with CRPs is a focal point overshadowing the importance of financial implications even though finances are integral to CRP health and longevity. Thus, it is imperative to identify these financial implications in order establish and convey the value of a CRP. This article reports on a cost-benefit analysis completed using the national averages of cost and benefits related to CRPs. Findings reinforce the value of CRPs and show the monetary impact a CRP can add to an institution of higher learning. This cost-benefit analysis was developed for institutions of higher education using available national data. Conclusions, limitations, and future implications are discussed. In addition, a cost-benefit tool was developed to be utilized by those who wish to develop a CRP.

*Gerber, W., *Hune, N., Kimball, T., & Wang, E. W. (2021). Tangible and intangible values of a CRP: A benefit-cost analysis. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 40(2), 164-173. https://doi.org/10.1080/07347324.2021.1979437

“This study examined the reliability and validity of the Texas Risk Assessment System (TRAS) alcohol and drug use screeners. (b) Method: We examined internal consistency, inter-item correlations, and used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and item response theory (IRT) to assess item-specific information regarding a single latent dimension of substance use severity. (c) Results: Results supported the TRAS alcohol and drug screeners to measure a single dimension of alcohol and drug use severity. More specifically, the instruments appear to be effective screeners of moderate to severe alcohol use problems, and thus effective screeners for referral for further assessment and possible treatment. (d) Conclusions: Treatment can only be provided for problems that are well defined and diagnosed. Continuing evaluation of substance abuse screeners and assessment is important, especially for justice-involved persons. Effective screeners can lead to more people getting needed assessment and treatment. Recommendations were to drop one item on each screener due to redundancy.

*Bradshaw, S., Wang, E. W., *Meeks, S. F., *Chroback, K., *Hirsch, S., & *Goad, C. (2021). Alcohol and drug use screening among justice-involved persons. Alcohol Treatment Quarterly, 40, 4-21. https://doi.org/10.1080/07347324.2021.1972776

“This article reports results of a research study at a National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) site focused on psychological research with clear applications to the real world. Two cohorts of undergraduates engaged in rigorous research projects with implications for real-world problems such as driving, homeland security, relationships, human-computer interaction, language comprehension and production, discrimination, and health psychology. To determine the effectiveness of the program, students completed the Kardash Ratings of Interns’ Research Skills as well as the Undergraduate Research Questionnaire, kept journals, and completed exit interviews. Results indicated that students and mentors perceived an improvement in the students’ research skills. Students conveyed positive experiences and identified strengths and weaknesses of the program that can be used to improve future REUs.

DeLucia, P. R., Woods, A. L., Kim, J.-H., Nguyen, N., Wang, E. W., & Yang, J. (2021). Learning to become researchers: Lessons learned from a Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program focused on research in the psychological sciences with real-world implications. Scholarship and Practice of Undergraduate Research, 4(4), 10-22. https://doi.org/10.18833/spur/4/4/6

“In this study, we assessed the feasibility and social validity of an adapted approach to positive behavior interventions and supports (PBIS) implementation in secure juvenile facilities. The authors developed a comprehensive model of facility-wide positive behavior interventions and supports (FW-PBIS) for use in secure juvenile correctional facilities, both detention and long term, as well as state and privately run. FW-PBIS leadership team members that included all major facility roles (education, corrections, mental health, medical, recreation) participated in staff development activities and implemented the advocated approaches over the course of the study. We assessed the fidelity, feasibility, and social validity of FW-PBIS in a repeated-measures evaluation study across 50 secure juvenile facilities. We collected intervention fidelity data using a version of the School-Wide Evaluation Tool modified to reflect the unique features of secure juvenile facilities. We also gathered behavioral incident data from the facilities, but it was not possible to combine these data across sites due to the vast differences in data collection, definitions/classifications, and storage systems from state to state. Results indicated that all participating facilities were able to achieve acceptable FW-PBIS implementation fidelity. Staff rated the intervention as acceptable, feasible, and were willing to implement FW-PBIS practices. Staff members also reported gains in sense of efficacy in their roles. Results are discussed in terms of limitations of the current study, future research, and practice needs.

Sprague, J., Jolivette, K., & Boden, L. J., & Wang, E. W. (2020). Implementing Positive Behavior Supports in Juvenile Corrections Settings: Results of an evaluation study. Remedial and Special Education, 4(2), 70-79. https://doi.org/10.1177/0741932519897135

“This program evaluation project evaluated the validity of a hypothesized model for predicting fieldwork performance using data of 121 occupational therapy students from a single university. The first aim was to evaluate the hypothesized relationships between observed measures (e.g., admission GPAs) and proposed latent factors (e.g., academic achievement) for predictor and outcome variables. Factor analysis of the outcome variable revealed a three-factor structure, measured by 13 items from the Fieldwork Performance Evaluation for the Occupational Therapy Student. However, factor analyses of the predictor variables did not support the proposed latent factors: Academic Achievement and Professional Potential. The second aim was to evaluate the hypothesized effects of predictor variables on level II fieldwork performance. Results of the structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis supported some of the hypothesized relationships. The model was a good fit to the data; however, the final SEM model only accounted for 16.4% of the variance.

*Whisner, S. M., Geddie, J. M., Sechrist, D., & Wang, E. (2019). Examination of potential factors to predict fieldwork performance: A program evaluation project. Journal of Occupational Therapy Education, 3(1), 6. https://doi.org/10.26681/jote.2019.030106

“This research focused on the impact of Family Group Decision-Making on expediting youths’ exits from the foster care system through family reunification, permanent placement with relatives, or adoption using a sample of youths (N = 80,690) in foster care in the state of Texas. The results from a discrete-time survival analysis indicated that Family Group Conferences after removal increased the odds of achieving the desired outcome of placement with family (reunification with family or placement with relatives) compared to adoption. Results also indicated that, although Family Group Conferences after removal did not decrease time to permanency, neither did they significantly increase time to permanency.

*Lambert, M. C., *Johnson, L. E., & Wang, E. W. (2017). The impact of Family Team Meetings on removals: Evidence from structural equation modeling. Children and Youth Services Review, 78, 89-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2012.01.015

“This chapter selectively reviews the evolution of quantitative practices in the field of developmental methodology. The chapter begins with an overview of the past in developmental methodology, discussing the implementation and dissemination of latent variable modeling and, in particular, longitudinal structural equation modeling. It then turns to the present state of developmental methodology, highlighting current methodological advances in the field. Additionally, this section summarizes ample quantitative resources, ranging from key quantitative methods journal articles to the various quantitative methods training programs and institutes. The chapter concludes with the future of developmental methodology and puts forth seven future innovations in the field. The innovations discussed span the topics of measurement, modeling, temporal design, and planned missing data designs. Lastly, the chapter closes with a brief overview of advanced modeling techniques such as continuous time models, state space models, and the application of Bayesian estimation in the field of developmental methodology.

Little, T. D., Wang, E. W., & *Gorrall, B. K. (2017). The past, present, and future of developmental methodology. In N. A. Card (Ed.), Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 82(2), 122-139. https://doi.org/10.1111/mono.12302

“This chapter selectively reviews the evolution of quantitative practices in the field of developmental methodology. The chapter begins with an overview of the past in developmental methodology, discussing the implementation and dissemination of latent variable modeling and, in particular, longitudinal structural equation modeling. It then turns to the present state of developmental methodology, highlighting current methodological advances in the field. Additionally, this section summarizes ample quantitative resources, ranging from key quantitative methods journal articles to the various quantitative methods training programs and institutes. The chapter concludes with the future of developmental methodology and puts forth seven future innovations in the field. The innovations discussed span the topics of measurement, modeling, temporal design, and planned missing data designs. Lastly, the chapter closes with a brief overview of advanced modeling techniques such as continuous time models, state space models, and the application of Bayesian estimation in the field of developmental methodology.

*Joung, H.-W., Choi, E.-K., & Wang, E. W. (2016). Effects of perceived quality and perceived value of campus foodservice on customer satisfaction: Moderating role of gender. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality and Tourism, 17(2), 101-113. https://doi.org/10.1080/1528008X.2015.1042620

“Unhealthy family dynamics often develop in families where addiction is present and negatively impact individual and family health. Family members becoming ready to make personal changes might positively impact family functioning and improve family support. More research is needed to examine this relationship in family recovery. Using structural equation modeling, family member readiness to change and family functioning over time were examined. Readiness and family functioning were positively and reciprocally associated with each other across 2 assessment points. Gender was associated with initial readiness to change and family functioning. Individual readiness to change may enhance family functioning and promote recovery-oriented changes for each family member.

*Bradshaw, S. D., Shumway, S. T., Wang, E. W., Harris, K. S., & Smith, D. (2016). Family functioning and readiness in family recovery from addiction. Journal of Groups in Addiction & Recovery, 11(1), 21-41. https://doi.org/10.1080/1556035X.2015.1104644

“Addiction adversely affects families, making family recovery important. Family members appear to benefit from hope, healthy coping skills, and a readiness to change. Family recovery research is limited and relationships between these variables are underexplored. Using structural equation modeling, preparation for change at initial assessment before a family treatment program predicted higher hope and coping skills after participation. Initial levels of hope predicted coping skills posttreatment. Gender, treatment track of the addict, and family members’ relation to the addict showed significant effects. The importance of family members’ hope, coping, and readiness to change in family recovery are discussed.

*Bradshaw, S. D., Shumway, S. T., Wang, E. W., & Harris, K. S., Smith, D. G., & Austin, H. (2015). Hope, readiness, and coping in family recovery from addiction. Journal of Groups in Addiction & Recovery, 10(4), 313-336. https://doi.org/10.1080/1556035X.2015.1099125

“Craving, a compulsive motivation to use, and conscious readiness to change (RTC) are distinct motivators of human behavior. Recovery requires RTC despite involuntary cravings. A structural equation modeling analysis examining hope as a mediator between these constructs found craving to directly associate with precontemplation, while hope partially mediated the relationship between craving, contemplation, and coping. Craving’s indirect effect on action toward change occurred only through hope. While craving appears to be a strong associate of precontemplation, hope appears to be an important associate of contemplation toward change and appears to be required for action. Hope also appears to be an important factor of coping in recovery.

*Bradshaw, S. D., Shumway, S. T., Wang, E. W., & Harris, K. S. (2015). Addiction and the mediation of hope on craving, readiness, and coping. Journal of Groups in Addiction & Recovery, 9(4), 294-312. https://doi.org/10.1080/1556035X.2014.969062

“The success of multitiered systems of support for students in public school settings, and Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS), in particular, has led to implementation of this framework in other settings, including secure care juvenile correctional facilities. Although all essential components of the framework translate well to other settings, some adaptations are necessary to accommodate different structures, goals, and operational procedures of nonpublic school settings. Secure care settings historically have gathered multiple types of data for evaluation and monitoring purposes. Some forms of those traditional data serve PBIS purposes well, but other certain new data, other forms of data, and different analyses of existing data may be needed to accurately monitor progress and impact of PBIS. In this article, we describe purposes for data as part of the PBIS framework, and discuss adaptations to typical data sources and analyses that may be needed in secure care settings.

Scheuermann, B. K., Nelson, C. M., Wang, E. W., & *Bruntmyer, T. (2015). Monitoring process and outcomes for Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports in residential settings: Better uses of data. Residential Treatment of Children and Youth, 32, 266-279. https://doi.org/10.1080/0886571X.2015.1113455

“This study explores the attitudinal and motivational factors underlying graduate students’ attitudes towards team research. Guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior, we hypothesize that attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control are three major determinants of graduate students’ intentions to conduct team research. An instrument was developed to measure the influences of these factors on students’ intentions and relevant scholarly productivity. A total of 281 graduate students from a large, comprehensive university in the southwest United States participated in the survey. Descriptive statistics reveal that around two-thirds of graduate students have no co-authored manuscripts submitted for publication since they started graduate school.

*Wei, T., Barnard-Brak, L., Wang, E. W., Sadikova, A. N., & Sodikov, D. (2015). Exploring graduate students’ attitudes towards team research and their scholarly productivity: A survey guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior. International Journal of Doctoral Studies, 10, 10-17.

“Over the past 20 years, the status of adolescent health has deteriorated at an alarming rate. The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) proposed six standards that identified characteristics of a physically educated individual. Some of these standards address constructs that can be framed in the self-determination theory. The purpose of this study was to validate an instrument intended to measure the actions and dispositions toward physical activity as a result of participation in a physical education program. Participants for this investigation were university freshmen. This sample was chosen because the participants were coming from a recent high school physical education experience. Using exploratory factor analyses, Griffin, Wang, and Hart (2008) found four-factor and three-factor solutions for actions and dispositions, respectively. The current study used confirmatory factor analysis that provides evidence for construct validity of the instrument for measuring the actions and dispositions toward physical activity. As a result of this investigation, a questionnaire measuring actions and dispositions toward physical activity has been validated. The instrument can easily be used by physical education specialists, physical activity practitioners, and academicians.

*Griffin, L. K., Wang, E. W., & Hart, M. A. (2014). Measuring fitness actions and dispositions toward physical activity: Validation of a self-report instrument. The Physical Educator, 71(1), 1-15.

“School-wide positive behavior interventions and supports (SW-PBIS) is a framework for creating safe and effective learning environments and cultivating a positive educational climate. Researchers show that SW-PBIS can improve behavioral outcomes, while demonstrations of a causal relationship between improvements in students’ academic achievement and implementation of SW-PBIS remain equivocal. We provide evidence of reductions in behavioral incident reports, improvements in school attendance, and increases in career and technical industry certifications following SW-PBIS implementation in one Texas secure male juvenile correction facility. We argue that these improvements could only be due to SW-PBIS implementation and not alternative explanations (e.g., agency policy/procedure changes, changes in facility or agency leadership, other treatment/rehabilitation programs, validity of measures). We also offer an explanation for these improved gains based on the academic characteristics of incarcerated youth.

*Johnson, L. E., Wang, E. W., Gilinsky, N., He, Z., Carpenter, J. C., Nelson, C. M., & Scheuermann, B. K. (2013). Youth outcomes following implementation of universal SW-PBIS strategies in Texas secure juvenile facilities. Education and Treatment of Children, 36(3), 135-145.

“This article provides a rationale and guidelines for the adoption and implementation of positive behavior interventions and supports (PBIS) in secure juvenile justice settings, including benefits for youth and staff members. The rationale for extending PBIS to juvenile justice settings based on the authors’ collective work in numerous states and types of juvenile settings is provided. The iterative development and field-testing process for PBIS implementation in these settings as well as features of the adapted materials and protocols are described. Evaluation methods are outlined and the paper closes with recommendations for future research and practice. Development of this chapter was supported in part by grant #R324A100286 from the United States Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences. The opinions expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily of the funding agency.

Sprague, J. R., Scheuermann, B. K., Wang, E. W., Nelson, C. M., Jolivette, K., & Vincent, C. (2013). Adopting and adapting PBIS for secure juvenile justice settings: Lessons learned. Education and Treatment of Children, 36(3), 121-134. doi:10.1353/etc.2013.0031

“Coaching is one component used to facilitate implementation of positive behavior intervention and supports (PBIS) with fidelity, and to help bridge the gap between training and implementation in real-world settings. This exploratory survey examined elements related to PBIS coaching as support for developing and implementing a statewide PBIS initiative in the educational settings of secure care juvenile correctional facilities. Facility PBIS team members and external PBIS coaches were surveyed to solicit feedback on the need for and value of specific coaching activities and factors that acted as facilitators and barriers to PBIS implementation. Both groups of respondents reported that administrator support, time to carry out PBIS responsibilities, and access to coaching and technical assistance are important for effective implementation of PBIS in secure settings.

Scheuermann, B. K., Duchaine, E. L., *Bruntmyer, D. T., Wang, E. W., Nelson, C. M., & Lopez, A. K. (2013). An exploratory survey of perceived value of coaching activities to support PBIS implementation in secure juvenile correctional facilities. Education and Treatment of Children, 36(3), 147-160. doi:10.1353/etc.2013.0021

“Possible selves theory describes the relation between self-concept and regulation of future-oriented behaviours. This theory helps conceptualise issues related to teacher development, including preparation and retention, but few researchers have done so. The validation of a Likert-type instrument intended to measure ‘new teacher possible selves’ is described. Student teachers in the United States (n = 335) completed the new measure in their final practicum semester. Results from two confirmatory factor analyses indicate that data fit well the models of new teacher expected and feared possible selves. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.

Hamman, D., Wang, E. W., & Burley, H. (2013). What I expect and fear next year: Measuring new teachers’ possible selves. Journal of Education for Teaching, 39(2), 222-234. https://doi.org/10.1080/02607476.2013.765194

“The aims of this study were to conduct an exploratory factor analysis on admission data, identify key variables that may predict discharge to home, and create and test a predictor model using confirmatory factor analysis and structured equation modeling.

*Jackson, J. P., *Whisner, S. M., & Wang, E. W. (2013). A predictor model for discharge destination in inpatient rehabilitation patients. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 92(4), 343-350. doi:10.1097/PHM.0b013e318278b1df

“This research focused on the impact of Family Group Decision-Making on expediting youths’ exits from the foster care system through family reunification, permanent placement with relatives, or adoption using a sample of youths (N = 80,690) in foster care in the state of Texas. The results from a discrete-time survival analysis indicated that Family Group Conferences after removal increased the odds of achieving the desired outcome of placement with family (reunification with family or placement with relatives) compared to adoption. Results also indicated that, although Family Group Conferences after removal did not decrease time to permanency, neither did they significantly increase time to permanency.

Wang, E. W., *Lambert, M. C., *Johnson, L. E., Boudreau, B., Breidenbach, R., & Baumann, D. (2012). Expediting permanent placement from foster care systems: The role of Family Group Decision-Making. Children and Youth Services Review, 34(4), 845-850. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2012.01.015

Scheuermann, B. K., Nelson, C. M., Wang, E. W., & Turner, M. (2012). A state model for PBIS in secure juvenile corrections: Planning and early intervention. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14, 1-4.

“This study describes the 1st-year effects of a Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support on four schools in impoverished communities in rural west Texas. The authors present pre- and post-descriptive data that demonstrate the positive effect upon decreasing discipline referrals, lowering in school suspension rates, and reducing failure rates. The authors hypothesized that using a Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support system is used in rural impoverished schools can help mitigate the negative consequences children experience in communities with few mental health services, thereby increasing their academic engagement and success.”

McCrary, D., Lechtenberger, D. A., & Wang, E. W. (2012). The effect of schoolwide positive behavioral supports on children in impoverished rural community schools. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 56(1), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1080/1045988X.2010.548417

“The authors investigated the relationship between adolescent occupational aspirations and midlife career success. The model for adolescent occupational aspirations was derived from Gottfredson’s (1981) theory of circumscription and compromise. The authors hypothesized that parental socioeconomic status (SES), ability, and gender predict adolescent occupational aspirations and influence career achievement in later life. Gottfredson’s model was a good fit for the data. SES and ability influenced the formation of occupational aspirations, and ability and gender predicted career achievement in later life. Additionally, occupational aspirations predicted career achievement in later life. Adolescent girls achieved less career success in midlife than did adolescent boys.”

*Cochran, D. B., Wang, E. W., *Stevenson, S. J., *Johnson, L. E., & Crews, C. (2011). Adolescent occupational aspirations: Test of Gottfredson’s theory of circumscription and compromise. Career Development Quarterly, 59, 412-427. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-0045.2011.tb00968.x

“This article presents a concept-guided approach to the assessment of risk in the life situations of children alleged to be maltreatment victims. This concept-guided risk assessment is theoretically based and is the first to use a nomological hierarchy which can yield itself to systematic testing for construct validity. Data were collected on 1199 cases referred for investigations of child maltreatment. Reliability was examined by applying Cronbach’s alpha coefficient to the 25 risk features and the 18 risk category constructs within the seven risk areas. “

Baumann, D. J., Grigsby, C., Sheets, J., Reid, G., Graham, J. C., Robinson, D., Holoubek, J., Farris, J., Jeffries, V., & Wang, E. W. (2011). Concept-guided risk assessment: Promoting prediction and understanding. Children and Youth Services Review, 33,1648-1657. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.04.017

Peer nominations and demographic information were collected from a diverse sample of 1493 elementary school participants to examine behavior (overt and relational aggression, impulsivity, and prosociality), context (peer status), and demographic characteristics (race and gender) as predictors of teacher and administrator decisions about discipline. Exploratory results using classification tree analyses indicated students nominated as average or highly overtly aggressive were more likely to be disciplined than others. Among these students, race was the most significant predictor, with African American students more likely to be disciplined than Caucasians, Hispanics, or Others. Among the students nominated as low in overt aggression, a lack of prosocial behavior was the most significant predictor. Confirmatory analysis using hierarchical logistic regression supported the exploratory results. Similarities with other biased referral patterns, proactive classroom management strategies, and culturally sensitive recommendations are discussed.

    *Horner, S. B., Fireman, G. D., & Wang, E. W. (2010). The relation of student behavior, peer status, race, and gender to decisions about school discipline using CHAID decision trees and regression modeling. Journal of School Psychology, 48(2), 135-161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2009.12.001 [Co-winner of the Journal of School Psychology article of the year.]

    “The present study investigated the characteristics of children who remain consistently peer victimized in comparison to those who transition out of victimization status. The relationships between victimization and the victim’s level of overt aggression, relational aggression, impulsivity, and prosocial behaviors were examined from one year to the next. At Time 1, 1589 3rd, 4th, and 5th-grade children were administered a peer nomination instrument assessing victimization and standard sociometric variables. At Time 2 (1 year later), 1619 3rd, 4th, and 5th-grade children were administered the same measure. A mixed-design repeated measures MANOVA was conducted for boys and girls separately. Results indicated that in comparison to victims transitioning out of victimization status, consistently victimized boys were lower in prosocial behavior, and consistently victimized girls were higher in impulsivity. Results for girls also indicated that a reduction in victim’s own level of relational aggression was associated with cessation of victimization.”

      *Dempsey, J., Fireman, G., & Wang, E. W. (2006). Transitioning out of peer victimization: Victim’s level of relational aggression. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 28(4), 273-282. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-005-9014-5

      Because of the rising frequency and severity of violence in prison populations, quick and accurate screening of aggressiveness is vital. The Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) is a 29-item self-report measure of aggression. Bryant and Smith proposed a refined 12-item, four-factor version with superior psychometric qualities; however, Williams, Boyd, Cascardi, and Poythress found a different factor structure among jail detainees than is usually found with nonoffenders. The current study used confirmatory factor analyses with data from mentally ill male offenders in a state prison to examine several previously proposed models for the BPAQ. Results confirmed the four-factor structure, the factorial invariance across populations, and supported the use of a modified 12-item refined BPAQ with this prison population.

        Diamond, P. M., Wang, E. W., & *Buffington-Vollum, J. (2005). Factor structure of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) with mentally ill male offenders. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 32(5), 546-564. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854805278416

        The purpose of this study was to determine how well various peer nomination factors predict to long-term low frequency but highly disruptive elementary age classroom behaviors that result in school disciplinary action. Peer nomination measures to determine six factors (prosocial, social preference, overt aggression, relational aggression, impulsivity, and social impact) were administered to 838 third through fifth grade students in the spring of 2000 and 344 students were re-assessed in the spring of 2001. In the spring of 2001, the occurrence of four school disciplinary actions (in-school suspension, out-of school suspension, corporal punishment, and placement in disciplinary alternative) was collected on the 838 students assessed in 2000. Consistent with prior research, the peer nomination measures were highly reliable. Using Receiving Operating Characteristics analyses the findings indicated that low prosocial skills, high overt aggression, and high impulsivity were independently strong predictors of school disciplinary actions. These findings were similar across grade and ethnicity. However, the impulsivity factor was a stronger predictor of disciplinary action for girls than for boys.

        Fireman, G., *Hutcherson, S., *Chilton, A., & Wang, E. W. (2002). Predicting school disciplinary problems: The validity of peer nomination measures. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. CG032044).

        Over the last decade state prisons have experienced unprecedented growth and many demographic changes. At the same time, courts are requiring states to provide mental health screening and treatment to prisoners. Findings from recent studies indicate that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in prisons than in the community, and comorbidity is common. Our ability to generalize from these studies is limited, however, because of major shifts in the demographic mix in prisons during the past decade. New studies on the prevalence of mental illness in prisons, which consider these recent changes would help planners allocate funds and staff to more effectively meet the needs of these individuals.

        Diamond, P. M., Wang, E. W., *Smith, J. L., Holzer, C. E., III, Cruser, d. A., & Thomas, C. R. (2001). The prevalence of mental illness in prison: Review and policy implications. Administration & Policy in Mental Health, 29(1), 21-40. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1013164814732

        In 1990, the Texas Department of Criminal Justice instituted a specialty aggression treatment program called the Program for the Aggressive Mentally Ill Offender (PAMIO). It has beds for 458 violent male offenders and offers multidisciplinary medical and behavioral treatment. This study examined the effectiveness of this treatment program by comparing the annual rates of disciplinary offenses (e.g., staff assaults, inmate assaults, and good time lost) of 66 offenders prior to and following treatment. Paired t tests showed a significant decrease after PAMIO treatment in the annual rates of total disciplinaries, staff assaults, inmate assaults, and good time lost. This improvement appeared to be directly related to treatment effects.”

        Wang, E. W., Owens, R. M., *Long, S. A., Diamond, P. M., & *Smith, J. L. (2000). The effectiveness of rehabilitation for persistently violent male prisoners. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 44(4), 505-514. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X00444008

        “The authors used structural modeling to predict institutional aggression among male mentally ill offenders using the predictors of anger, antisocial personality style, current violent offense, ethnicity, and impulsivity. Measures included the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Personality Assessment Inventory, age, ethnicity, current violent offense, victim injury from current offense, and institutional incidents of physical and verbal aggression. The model fit the data, and accounted for 94% and 87% of the variance of physical and verbal aggression, respectively. Results indicated anger, antisocial personality style, and impulsivity are stronger predictors of institutional aggression than are ethnicity and current violent offense; anger was the best predictor. Results suggest dynamic variables such as anger can be targeted for clinical intervention to reduce institutional violence.”

        Wang, E. W., & Diamond, P. M. (1999). Empirically identifying factors related to violence risk in corrections. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 17, 377-389. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-0798(199907/09)17:3<377::AID-BSL351>3.0.CO;2-M

        “Indicators of feigned PAI profiles were derived from comparisons of simulators instructed to feign and genuine patient groups. Concerns are raised regarding whether these indicators are applicable to forensic and correctional populations and can be crossvalidated with a known-groups comparison. Compiling data on 57 malingerers and 58 genuine patients from two forensic and correctional sites, three primary indicators of feigning, Negative Impression (NIM) scale, Malingering Index, and the Rogers Discriminant Function (RDF) were investigated. Results suggested that the RDF was not applicable to forensic referrals. However, NIM 2 77T appeared to be a useful screen for forensic samples. In addition, convergent evidence of feigning was found across designs (simulation and known-groups) and samples (non-forensic and forensic) for extreme elevations on NIM (> 1101) and Malingering Index (? 5).”

        Rogers, R., Sewell, K. W., Cruise, K. R., Wang, E. W., & Ustad, K. L. (1998). The PAI and feigning: A cautionary note on its use in forensic-correctional settings. Assessment, 5, 399-405. https://doi.org/10.1177/107319119800500409

        “Provision of mental health services to correctional populations places considerable demands on clinical staff to provide efficient and effective means to screen patients for severe mental disorders and other emergent conditions that necessitate immediate interventions. Among the highly problematic behaviors found in correctional settings are forms of acting out (e.g., suicide and aggression towards others) and response style (e.g., motivations to malinger). The current study examined the usefulness of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) in assessing problematic behaviors in a corrections-based psychiatric hospital. As evidence of criterion related validity, selected PAI scales were compared to (a) evidence of malingering on the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS), (b) suicidal threats and gestures, and (c) ratings of aggression on the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS). In general, results supported the use of the PAI for the assessment of these problematic behaviors.”

        Wang, E. W., Rogers, R., Giles, C. L., Diamond, P. M., Herrington-Wang, L. E., & Taylor, E. R. (1997). A pilot study of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) in corrections: Assessment of malingering, suicide risk, and aggression in male inmates. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 15, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-0798(199723/09)15:4<469::AID-BSL279>3.0.CO;2-A

        Exit mobile version